Do you need a memorable vacation in Turkey? You must discover Istanbul first. With this Istanbul tourist guide, we offer you a chance in order to explore Istanbul on a budget.
Whether you travel to Istanbul for 1 – 2 days or longer than this, we collect the most needed tips and tricks for you. If you don’t know where to start planning your Turkey trip, here is a budget-friendly Istanbul tourist guide with 7 secret travel advice.
Before focusing on those special suggestions, let’s answer the question, is Istanbul a cheap place to visit? It definitely depends. It might be according to your currency, your budget, your time, and the expenses that you provide for your vacation.
If you’re looking for an incredible trip to Istanbul on a budget, then look no further! In this blog post, we will give you all the information you need to have a fantastic time in this amazing city without spending a fortune. We’ll tell you about the best cheap hotels in Istanbul, as well as some tips on how to save money while you’re there on this Istanbul tourist guide.
We’ll also give you a rundown of the do’s and don’ts in Turkey, as well as how much you should budget for your trip. And last but not least, we’ll tell you about the nightlife prices in Istanbul so that you can plan your evenings accordingly!
You will be able to find so many options to choose from, so make your Istanbul city budget and start planning your trip to Turkey. Let’s start with which tips you need to know before your vacation.
What Do I Need to Know Before Visiting Istanbul?
Istanbul is a very welcoming city. The people are incredibly friendly and hospitable, and you’ll find that most people speak at least some English. However, it’s always a good idea to learn a few basic phrases in Turkish before you go, as this will help you get around more easily and make your trip even more enjoyable. Here is the guide of frequently used Turkish words for tourists for you.
Now that you know a little bit about Istanbul, let’s move on to how you can save money during your trip!
READ 🎯 Istanbul Metro Map Guide
How many days is ideal for Istanbul? Istanbul is a huge city and it has so many things to do. So you should spare at least two or 3 days Istanbul package. So let’s focus on what should I do in Turkey in 3 days?
Planning Your Trip with Istanbul tourist guide
Plan your trip as compactly as possible, especially if you are a traveler on a budget. Let’s find some answers about how many days are enough for traveling to Istanbul.
Is 3 days in Istanbul enough? What should I do in Istanbul in 3 days? Here is a quick Istanbul trip plan for 3 days.
If you’re looking to make the most of your time in Istanbul, then three days is definitely enough. There are plenty of things to see and do in this amazing city, and with a little planning, you can easily fit it all into a long weekend. Here’s a quick rundown of what you can do in your Istanbul trip budget in three days:
What can you do in Istanbul in 3 days?
Start your trip by exploring the Sultanahmet district, which is home to some of Istanbul’s most famous landmarks. Be sure to visit the Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia(Hagia Sophia mosaics), and the Topkapi Palace. Then, take a stroll through the Grand Bazaar to pick up some souvenirs. In the evening, head to Taksim Square for a night out on the town.
READ 🎯 Istanbul Shopping Guide
On your second day, cross the Bosphorus Strait to the Asian side of Istanbul. Here, you’ll find a completely different atmosphere than in the European part of the city.
What should I not miss in Istanbul?
Be sure to visit the Dolmabahce Palace and take a boat ride down the Bosphorus. In the evening, check out one of the many nightclubs in Istanbul for a night of dancing and fun.
Is 3 days enough for Istanbul? Well, it totally depends on you! If you walk around and discover the essentials, probably 3 days are enough.
Spend your last day in Istanbul exploring some of the city’s less-known attractions. Start by visiting the Chora Museum, which is home to some beautiful Byzantine mosaics. Then, take a walk through the Fener and Balat districts to see some of Istanbul’s traditional neighborhoods. Finally, finish up your trip with a visit to the Galata Tower for an incredible view of the city. (Make sure if they are accepting guests or not currently!)
As you can see, there’s plenty to do in Istanbul in just three days. Also, you can extend your Istanbul travel for an extra day. If you are wondering, is 4 days enough in Istanbul? You can add something else from this Istanbul travel guidebook blog post.
Do you need a guide in Istanbul? If you are trying to save money, travel on a budget; if you travel by backpacking in Istanbul, etc. you really don’t need a guide in Istanbul. This Istanbul travel blog covers all you need in order to make an easy travel map for your city trip. But it is better to get an actual paperback Istanbul travel guide book.
In addition, you can find some answers to these questions hereinafter. What Istanbul is famous for, what are the features of Istanbul, what are the most popular things to do in Istanbul with kids etc?
Istanbul tourist guide: Find the cheapest flights to Istanbul
Plan your complete vacation to Istanbul on a budget. Either find the cheapest flights to Istanbul or explore the cheap flights to Istanbul with a hotel. Before arranging your flights to Istanbul, make clear your trip duration first.
If you are wondering how many days is enough in Istanbul? Make your bucket list first, because Istanbul is a very massive city to discover. If you want to visit top attractions, don’t forget, the Anatolian side has many various places to see, too.
In addition, the best time to visit Istanbul is probably the spring and summer months. Otherwise, rain or snow might cause some cancellations or postponements of your plans.
Let’s talk about visas to Turkey. If you are asking How do I get an eVisa for Turkey? You can make your eVisa application from this official visa page for your next trip. (If you need to obtain a visa.)
Istanbul tourist guide: Cheap Hotels in Istanbul
If you are looking for a nice place only for sleep, you should book a budget-friendly place. So you can save your money or spend on another thing during your trip. A trip to Istanbul on a budget doesn’t require luxury hotels. Prioritize your expectations, for example, safety, cleanliness, and nearness to the places that you will go; and find a hotel or hostel which covers up.
Istanbul Hotels On A Budget
There are a few things to keep in mind when looking for a cheap hotel in Istanbul. First, try to avoid the more touristy areas. Hotels in these areas are typically more expensive and may not be as clean or comfortable as you would like.
Instead, look for hotels in the less-crowded neighborhoods away from the main attractions. You’ll find that these hotels are much more affordable, and you’ll still be close enough to the action to enjoy all the city has to offer.
Another great way to save money on your hotel is to book in advance. If you can, try to book your room at least a few weeks before your trip. This will give you time to shop around for the best deals and find a hotel that fits your budget.
Lastly, don’t be afraid to ask for discounts! Many hotels offer discounts for AAA members, seniors, students, and more. If you belong to any of these groups, be sure to mention it when you’re booking your room to see if you can get a lower rate.
Best Budget Hotels in Taksim Istanbul
Here are the few best budget hotels in Taksim Istanbul.
Riva Hotel Taksim
Hotel Riva is a great hotel option if you’re looking for something centrally located. It’s just a short walk from Taksim Square, and it’s also close to many of the city’s best restaurants and bars.
Bosphorus City Istanbul
Bosphorus City Istanbul hotel is a great choice if you want to be close to the water. It’s located right on the Bosphorus Strait, and it offers stunning views of the city skyline.
Hotel Sultania Istanbul
Hotel Sultania is a great option if you’re looking for something affordable and comfortable. It’s located in a quiet neighborhood, but it’s still just a short walk from Taksim.
Istanbul tourist guide: Do I need a tour guide in Istanbul?
Plan your trip on your own because you can do it. Be your own tour guide. In addition, we will announce which destinations you may add to your bucket list during your Istanbul trip. However, if you don’t have spare time for planning your vacation route, you may join daily tours or take a private one in Istanbul.
You can check the daily Istanbul private tour guide cost from here.
Also if you want to learn more things about the history of the places, a guide might be useful. But if you would like to discover it yourself, all places have well-prepared information: signboards, leaflets, etc…
So… what to do in Istanbul right now?
Istanbul tourist guide: Cheap things to do in Istanbul
Here is another step for travelers on a budget in Istanbul. If you are looking for what to do in Istanbul right now, you have the right to know the free or cheap things to do in Istanbul.
We picked up some free and budget-friendly attractions for you. Those attractions mostly include outdoor places, city walks, museums, and famous mosques. Some of them are free and some of them are at nominal prices.
Places to Visit in Istanbul
If you are asking How can I spend 3 days in Istanbul? Here are the most satisfying and budget-friendly tourist attractions.
We added all those destinations to our TripAdvisor map as the Istanbul tourist guide map which is at the end of this post. So you can create your route with this special map.
Famous mosques and historical places in Istanbul
Here are the famous mosques and historical places in Istanbul that you can enjoy visiting there.
When you visit The Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia Mosque, and Hagia Irene Church Museum please take a thin scarf with you. As you know, those places are also religious destinations. That’s why you should get dressed a bit properly there. After that visit Basilica Cistern for an amazing and ancient underground experience.
Ready for a snap? Visit Topkapi Palace and Dolmabahce Palace. Those are very gorgeous historical palaces that should be on your Istanbul bucket list.
Take an ancient breath in Grand Bazaar (a.k.a. Kapalıçarşı) and discover all the unique pieces there. If you need souvenirs and other stuff you must see the Spice Market (a.k.a. Mısır Çarşısı).
Galata Tower is a very important destination to catch the sunset or for your purpose. Also, a walking tour on Istiklal Street is another outdoor activity.
Galata Tower’s working hours are between 8.30 – 23.00. The entrance fee per person is 350 Turkish Liras for 2023.
If you go to the Anatolian side, the Uskudar region, you must see the Maiden’s Tower Istanbul. You can reach Maidens Tower Istanbul by private boat every day.
Anatolian side in Istanbul has many good things to do as well.
Here is a list of some museums in Istanbul
Let’s start with free ones: Ural Ataman Classic Car Museum is a very unique museum in Istanbul. The Museum of Adam Mickiewicz is another place that has free entrance.
Pera Museum offers a free visit once a week. They named it Long Friday. Every Friday, from 18:00 to 22.00 you can visit Pera Museum for free.
PTT Museum is a very unique museum about the communication history of Turkey. PTT means Post-Telegraph-Telephone and the museum entrance is free.
The Naval Museum is one of the most gorgeous museums in Istanbul. The entrance fee is currently about 25 Turkish Liras.
You should also add to your bucket list the first museum of Turkey which is the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. It is one of the world’s largest museums too. The entrance fee is 200 TL but you have another option: Museum Pass Cards cover many museums in Turkey.
Buy an Istanbul Museum Pass
If you buy an Istanbul museum pass, you can use it in 13 museums and historical places in Istanbul. Istanbul Museum Pass can be used for five days. The price is 1750 Turkish Liras.
Amazing Outdoor Places and Activities in Istanbul
In this part, we will share with you the good options for visiting amazing outdoor places and activities in Istanbul.
If you have time in Istanbul, visiting Princes Islands is a must. The atmosphere is excellent. You can even discover some museum homes, churches, and ruins. The islands are well protected so you can’t find any cars. When you arrive there by ferry, you will discover it by bicycle or by foot.
Another attraction for long trips in Istanbul is: Exploring the excellent Belgrad Forest with amazing nature.
Let’s talk about some places for those who have little time in Istanbul. You can climb Pierre Loti Hill and enjoy the view and discover all that historic walking area. Another amazing view you can find is in Ortakoy. We will tell you what you can eat in Ortakoy below.
We also would like to introduce you to some hidden attractions if you are interested. Ataturk Arboretum is one of the greatest botanical gardens in Turkey. Especially for those who are looking for Instagrammable places in Istanbul, this garden must be visited. Here are some local parks and outdoor places for you. If you are discovering Istanbul deeply, you should add to your bucket list, Macka Park and Gulhane Park.
If you want to have a romantic walk in Istanbul, we are telling you the best places. Balat is a very colorful neighborhood for photography and cozy walks. In addition to this, Moda is another beautiful walking area which is at Anatolian Side. Catch or follow the Kadikoy-Moda Nostalgia Tram.
We have a little bit more expensive offers for you too. But if you are looking for several options, you can catch the cheapest deals for them. So what are these things to do? You can have a Bosphorus Cruise dinner or sunset boat tour to feel like a celeb. Treat yourself to this excellent Bosphorus landscape and create your magical unforgettable memories for the future.
READ 👉🏻 Bosphorus marriage proposal
Here is another treaty thing for you. If you are wondering about traditional Turkish baths and want to relax, you must experience the hammams. Traditional Turkish Baths for relaxing are very magical things to do in Istanbul. Make your time for those which you like most because they will be worth it. Also, you may enjoy this 15 best hammam products blog post.
Let’s continue with more advice. How will your trip around like a local during your Istanbul trip? You are creating your map for your trip in order to travel like a local. So how will you do this and what are your needs? The answer is public transportation.
Istanbul tourist guide: How do you get around in Istanbul?
Let’s get to know public transportation in Istanbul better. But for more comprehensive guides, you can also check Istanbul Metro Map and Transportation by Train blog post and Istanbul city transportation card for tourists blog post out.
EXPLORE 👉🏻 Buy SIM Card for Tourists in Turkey
Public Transportation in Istanbul
Istanbul’s public transportation system is looking a bit complex at first. But when you figure it out once it is quite simple actually. (You can also walk, and rent a bicycle or scooter (like Martı) instead of using public transportation. But we want to tell you more about public vehicles.)
Istanbul has extended metro lines, metro buses, trolleys, trams, minibusses, and fast trains. You can use those options on both sides and travel from one side to the other. Also using the ferries between the sides and coasts is a very budget-friendly option for a quick Bosphorus tour.
So, do you know how you will pay for public transportation costs in Istanbul? With an Istanbul Card.
Whether you are a Turkish citizen or not, don’t worry. You can have an Istanbul Card. So, how to get an Istanbul card?
You can buy an Istanbulkart from Kiosks or similar places. When you match your card with your HES code, you will be able to use it on public transportation.
Can I use Istanbulkart for more than one person? If it’s a non-personalized card, yes you can.
How can I activate Istanbulkart in English? Find the ticket machines. They are near the bus stops, metro entrances, etc. From those machines, you can change your Istanbulkart language to English.
How much does an Istanbul card cost? Currently, the Istanbul card cost is 25 Turkish Liras.
Where can I use istanbulkart? You can use the Istanbul kart for most public transportation vehicles. Buses, metrobuses, metro, marmaray, tram, ferries, cable cars etc. It is not available on small buses (minibusses).
Our taxis in Istanbul expensive?
Meh. It is not so expensive but finding a taxi in Istanbul is getting harder every day. You should consider the intense traffic on the roads. Do not forget the traffic in Istanbul in order to save your time to explore more according to your Istanbul tourist guide. Choosing public transportation might be easier.
Is Uber cheaper than a taxi in Istanbul?
Using Uber was only possible a short time ago, but unfortunately is no longer allowed. You can only use yellow taxis in Istanbul.
Is Uber available in Turkey?
It was before. But now Uber isn’t allowed in Turkey.
How many airports are there in Istanbul?
There are two airports. Istanbul Airport on the European side and Sabiha Gökçen Airport on the Asian side. In fact, there is also Atatürk Airport, but it is no longer used.
Is there a metro from Istanbul Airport?
No. You can use the shuttle or take public buses.
How much is a taxi from Istanbul Airport to the city Centre?
It depends on where you want to go, but going from Istanbul Airport to Taksim costs around 150 TL (8 – 9$). Airport shuttles (Havaist) are budget-friendly. It varies between 30 – 50 TL depending on where you go.
Istanbul tourist guide: Best Cheap Eats
Turkish breakfast is a must according to your Istanbul tourist guide. You can find a delicious Turkish breakfast everywhere but especially in Beşiktaş, you can discover the cheapest places in Istanbul for a tasty experience.
Cheapest Places in Istanbul
Here are some cheap breakfast places in Istanbul.
Simit Sarayi: This is a great place to get a delicious Turkish breakfast. The simits are freshly baked and there’s a wide variety of toppings to choose from.
Menemencioglu: This is another great option for a cheap breakfast in Istanbul. The menemen is cooked fresh and it’s served with bread, feta cheese, and olives.
Gozleme: This is a great place to get a quick and tasty breakfast. The gozleme are made with fresh dough and they’re filled with a variety of fillings, such as cheese, potato, and spinach.
In addition, you can find some cheap restaurants in Istanbul.
Cicek Pasaji: This is a great place to get a delicious Turkish meal. The dishes are all reasonably priced, and there’s a wide variety of options to choose from.
Asmali Cavit: This is another great option for a cheap meal in Istanbul. The menu features a variety of traditional Turkish dishes, all of which are very reasonably priced.
Be Local and Save Your Money on Vacation
Istanbul is known for its delicious food, and you’ll definitely want to try as much of it as you can! However, dining out can get expensive, so it’s important to know where to eat in order to save money.
One great way to save money on food is to eat like a local.
Where do locals eat in Istanbul? Kadıköy, Karaköy, Eminönü, Beyoğlu, Sarıyer, Ortaköy, Üsküdar is very famous regions. There are so many street foods and restaurants everywhere. You can find the places LOKANTA and you can taste more traditional Turkish recipes.
What is the famous food in Istanbul? Kebab for every day. Really! You can find the famous Turkish food KEBAB on every corner. Kebabs are actually many kinds like “iskender”, “şiş”, “adana”, “urfa”, “beyti”, “tas”, “cağ”. You must try each one.
So what are the different types of kebabs? İskender kebab served with a special tomato sauce, that is the secret. Şiş kebab is grilled meat on skewers. Adana kebab is spicier and hotter than Urfa kebap. Beyti is a rolling kebab served with yoghurt. This is the difference between kebabs. In addition, köfte (meatball), döner, pide, lahmacun, and mantı are very famous foods that we offer to try.
Turkish cuisine is very famous with soups, too. You should drink ÇORBA before your dinner. If you want to taste a little bit, you can say “Az çorba.” Then they will give you a half bowl of soup. You don’t want to be full of soup. Mercimek, Ezo Gelin, and tarhana soups are very famous. Don’t worry, these soups are all vegetables.
If you like eating fish, you can try grilled fish sandwiches in the Eminönü region as cheap and practical street food. You can also go fishing at restaurants near Eminönü or Karaköy. If you want to try the famous Turkish drink raki, it is a good match with fresh fish.
You should eat kumpir in Ortakoy. It is a very famous street food made from special roasted giant potatoes. You will be able to choose ingredients for your own kumpir. After that, you should try probably one of the best waffles in Turkey.
Is there dessert in Turkey? You can find more dessert advice in Istanbul. Some of them are Turkish, and some of them are from other cuisines but in the end, all desserts that you will try are awesome.
Have you ever tried Künefe? Künefe is a very unique and delicious dessert you must try. Probably Baklava is the most known Turkish dessert out and away but you should give Künefe a chance, too.
What are Turkish sweets made of? Besides künefe and baklava, the syrup based desserts are like; lokma, tulumba, kemalpaşa, şekerpare, kadayıf, revani, şambali, etc.
Milk based desserts are like; sütlaç, muhallebi, tavuk göğsü, kazandibi, etc.
And the rest are unique ones like that; lokum, aşure, helva (with semolina or flour), Maraş ice-cream, etc.
Let’s skip to the drinks. What is the most popular alcoholic drink in Turkey? Well, it is definitely rakı. Turkish wines are also fine, tasty, and worth a try.
What about famous hot drinks in Turkey? Turkish tea is very special. Turkish people have their own brew methods. That makes Turkish tea more unique and tasty. Turkish coffee and salep are very famous different hot drinks in Turkey. You can find them on every corner in Istanbul.
Other traditional drinks which you can taste; ayran, şalgam, Ottoman sherbet, etc.
So, there you have it! These are just a few tips to help you save money on your trip to Istanbul. With a little planning and some careful spending, you can have an incredible trip to this amazing city without breaking the bank. Bon voyage!
Istanbul tourist guide: Cheap Shopping Places
Are you looking to buy some clothes and other stuff in Istanbul, you should definitely find the right places.
If you want to buy well known famous brands you should go to the shopping malls in Istanbul.
Shopping Malls in Istanbul
You can find so many shopping malls in Istanbul. Some of them are outlets that include various brands inside. That means much more cheap clothes. The only bad side of shopping malls, is you can not haggle but anyways, the malls are still good options for shopping and rainy days. I added the most famous shopping malls in Istanbul on the TripAdvisor map.
Best hidden gems for shopping in Istanbul: Passages
Istanbul passages have various stores. You will be able to find haggling in these small stores. They mostly have unique pieces or handmade stuff. If you want to buy clothes you should check Terkos Pasajı on Istiklal Street and Sinanpaşa Pasajı in Besiktas for clothes.
If you are looking for books, you should check Akmar Passage in Kadıköy. Akmar Pasajı is a very extended place in Kadıköy for buying books.
Flea and street markets
Wanna buy some clothes and fabrics, Kadıkoy Sali Pazari should be on your bucket list which is open on Tuesdays. Pendik Cumartesi Pazari is available on Saturdays as another option. Carsamba Pazari is on Wednesdays which is in Fener, Balat.
Ferikoy Antika Pazari (Ferikoy Ancient Bazaar) is a very popular flea market in Sisli, Istanbul.
Istanbul Nightlife Prices
Is Istanbul good for nightlife? Yes, Istanbul has a great nightlife scene! There are plenty of bars and clubs to choose from, and the prices are relatively reasonable.
So, how much does a drink cost in Istanbul? Prices for drinks in Istanbul can vary depending on where you go.
How much does a beer cost in Istanbul? A beer will typically cost you around $2- $3 in Istanbul.
What is the dress code for clubs in Istanbul? The dress code for clubs in Istanbul can change from place to place. However, in general, it is advisable to dress to impress.
How much does it cost to get into a club in Istanbul? The cost of getting into a club in Istanbul can range from $0-$20, depending on the venue.
Is there red light district in Istanbul? There is no red light district in Istanbul.
What are the most popular clubs in Istanbul? Some of the most popular clubs in Istanbul include Anjelique, Sortie.
Where do locals party in Istanbul? Some of the best places to party with locals in Istanbul are Bosphorus, Ortaköy, and Bebek.
Best Night Clubs in Istanbul
Istanbul nightlife street can be discovering with walking trips. Kadıköy, Beyoğlu – Taksim, and Beşiktaş regions are very popular with pubs and nightclubs. Also, you can check the night boat trips with parties.
For more budget-friendly night events you can track the happy hours of the pubs and clubs.
Let’s check the last subject, the internet. Then you will find some frequently asked question about Istanbul travel.
How do I get Internet in Turkey?
Does Istanbul have free WiFi? Yes, there are many places in Istanbul that offer free WiFi, including cafes, restaurants, and hotels.
Is it easy to find an Internet cafe in Istanbul? Yes, it is easy to find an Internet cafe in Istanbul.
How much does it cost to use the Internet in Istanbul? The cost of using the Internet in Istanbul can vary but is typically around $0.50-$0.60.
How to get wifi in Istanbul? There are many places in Istanbul that offer free WiFi, including cafes, restaurants, and hotels. You can also find an Internet cafe or using your hotel’s computer if they have one.
How much does WiFi cost in Turkey? The cost of using WiFi in Turkey can vary, but is typically around $0.50-$0.60 per hour.
How to get wifi in Istanbul airport? Please get informed about that from the information desks.
Istanbul Tourist Guide FAQ & Summary of Istanbul Trip On A Budget
How much should I budget for a trip to Turkey?
How much you’ll need to budget for a trip to Turkey will depend on a number of factors, such as how long you’re staying, what kind of activities you’re interested in, and where you’ll be staying.
How much money do you need in Istanbul per day?
The minimum budget will be about $50 per day. But if you spend more you can explore, taste and stay better.
How can I save money in Turkey?
Here are a few tips to help you save money on your trip to Turkey:
-Stay in a hostel or guesthouse instead of a luxury hotel
-Cook your own meals instead of eating out
-Use public transportation instead of taxis or public transportation
Can I wear shorts in Istanbul?
Women can wear shorts but they should be of appropriate length. Shorts that are too short or revealing may attract unwanted attention. Men can also wear shorts, but again, they should be of an appropriate length. However, coastal destinations like Antalya are more flexible in terms of clothing.
Can you drink alcohol in Istanbul?
Yes, of course. Maybe you are not able to find it in every restaurant or cafe.
What are the most popular things to do in Istanbul with kids?
If you’re traveling to Istanbul with kids, there are plenty of things to keep them entertained. Start by taking them to see the city’s most famous landmarks, such as the Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia, and the Topkapi Palace. Then, let them explore the Grand Bazaar and pick out some souvenirs. You can also take them on a boat ride down the Bosphorus or visit one of Istanbul’s many parks. And of course, no trip to Istanbul would be complete without a stop at the Galata Tower for an incredible view of the city. With so much to see and do, your kids are sure to have a great time in Istanbul!
If you want to go beyond the traditional, places such as Legoland, Madame Tussauds Museum, and Kidzania await you.
What is the best month to visit Istanbul?
The best time to visit Turkey Istanbul is mostly spring or summer. What are the Istanbul travel requirements and Istanbul travel covid? You can read our blog post from travel to Turkey which includes Turkey entry restrictions, too.
Here is the Istanbul Tourist Guide map on TripAdvisor.