Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent is the tenth sultan of the Ottoman empire and ruled for 46 years from 1520 to 1566. He is one of the most successful Ottoman sultans.

Suleiman the Magnificent came to the throne after his father Sultan Selim and was the sultan who participated in the war the most, and the Ottoman empire at its peak played an important role.

If you are interested in the Ottoman empire, we recommend you to read our article on the Ottoman empire map at its peak.

Table of Contents

Sultan Suleiman History

He is the only son of I.Suleiman, I.Selim (Yavuz Sultan Selim) and Ayşe Hafsa Sultan. He was born on 6 November 1494 in Trabzon.

Suleiman, who lived in Trabzon until the age of 7, was then sent to Enderun (Janissary school) in Topkapı Palace to receive his military and political education.

Later, Suleiman who was sent to the Bolu Sanjak was sent as the heir to the Manisa Sanjak after his father ascended the throne.

Suleiman, who served as a prince in the Manisa sanjak until 1520, became the 10th sultan of the Ottoman Empire on September 30, 1520, with the death of his father.

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

Sultan Suleiman Wars

The Magnificent Sultan Suleiman remained on the throne for 43 years and organized 13 expeditions. His nickname came from the wars he won.

Under the leadership of Sultan Suleiman, the Ottoman empire reached its peak. He conquered Belgrade, Rhodes, Moldavia, and most of Hungary and the Middle East.

One of the most important victories of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was the Battle of Mohac with the Hungarian army. This war lasted two hours and the Hungarian army was destroyed. The Battle of Mohacs is known as the shortest war ever fought.

The Magnificent Suleiman appointed Hızır Hayrettin Pasha to the head of the naval forces and conquered countries such as Algeria and Morocco today.

Magnificent Sultan Suleiman besieged the city of Vienna, but he could not win the war. This war prevented Sultan Suleiman’s advance in Europe and became a turning point for the Ottomans.

Sultan Suleiman Wars
Sultan Suleiman Wars

Suleiman the Magnificent battle list

  • Conquest of Belgrade – 1521
  • Conquest of Rhodes – 1522 – 1523
  • Battle of Mohacs – 1526
  • First Siege of Vienna – 1529
  • German War – 1532
  • Conquest of Iraq – 1534 – 1536
  • Conquest of Corfu – 1537
  • Moldavia Conquest – 1538
  • Budin Conquest – 1541
  • Conquest of Esztergom – 1543
  • Safavid Wars – 1548 – 1549
  • Nakhchivan Conquest – 1553 – 1555
  • Conquest of Zigetvar – 1566

Hurrem Sultan – Sultan Suleiman Wife

Hürrem sultan was a resident of the Kingdom of Poland, which is now within the borders of Ukraine. After being captured by the raiders, he was sent to Istanbul as a slave.

Aleksandra (Hürrem sultan), who was accepted into the Sultan’s harem in the Topkapı Palace, attracted the attention of Sultan Suleiman and this is how he became one of the most important Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

It is believed that there was great love between Suleiman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan. Although Suleiman had other concubines (slave women), he married Hürrem Sultan and remained loyal to Hürrem Sultan.

Hürrem Sultan has four male princes and is very talented in politics. He had good relations with important viziers and officials in the Ottoman Empire. He also took advantage of Sultan Suleiman’s love for Hürrem Sultan and sometimes misled Suleiman.

There were problems and conflicts between Hürrem Sultan, the sister of Suleiman, and Mahidevran Sultan, the mother of prince Mustafa. Hürrem Sultan emerged from all of them successfully and ascended his son Selim to the throne after Suleiman.

Sultan Suleiman Wife
Sultan Suleiman Wife

Sultan Suleiman Sisters

Sultan Suleiman is an only son and had four sisters. Unfortunately, we do not know which child is older, as their date of birth is unknown. Let’s get to know the sisters of Sultan Suleiman;

Şah Sultan

Şah Sultan spent his childhood with Suleiman in Manisa. She married Lütfi Pasha in 1523 and divorced in 1541. Mimar Sinan had a special mosque built for Şah Sultan.

Hatice Sultan

She married Iskender Pasha, the governor of the Ottoman State, in 1509. Iskender Pasha was later executed for taking bribes. She married Pargalı İbrahim Pasha, who was a close friend of Sultan Suleiman and later became a vizier. After the execution of İbrahim Pasha, he committed suicide.

Fatma Sultan

Fatma Sultan is one of the very colorful characters. She was married to Mustafa Pasha, the sanjak chief of Antakya. She was later divorced due to her husband’s perversions. It is said that Fatma Sultan got married several more times. She had a mosque built in Topkapı.

Beyhan Sultan

She married the Ottoman statesman Ferhat Pasha. However, Suleiman the Magnificent kept Damat Ferhat Pasha a widow. Beyhan Sultan died young.

Sultan Suleiman Sisters
Sultan Suleiman Sisters

Children of Sultan Suleiman

Sultan Suleiman had 5 sons named Mustafa, Mehmet, Selim, Beyazıd, Cihangir, and a daughter named Mihrimah.

In the Ottoman Empire, boys were called princes, and they were the most authoritative and important people after the sultan. They receive intensive military and political training.

Sehzade Mustafa(Prince), is the greatest prince. Mahidevran is the only child of the sultan. He was loved by the soldiers and the public. Prince Mustafa was executed by Sultan Suleiman for treason.

Sehzade Mehmet(Prince), the first son of Hürrem Sultan, passed away at a young age in the sanjak of Manisa.

Sehzade Cihangir(Prince) is the youngest son of Sultan Suleiman and is a hunchback from birth. For this reason, he was never seen as the heir to the throne. After the execution of Şehzade Mustafa, he fell ill with sadness and died.

After the death of Şehzade Mustafa, Sehzade Beyazid(Prince) loses the war with his older brother Şehzade Selim and is strangled by Selim.

Sehzade Selim(Prince) became the 11th Ottoman sultan after the death of Sultan Suleiman. Prince Selim, known to have an alcohol problem, did not go to war with his army, and after this period, a period of decline began for the Ottoman Empire.

Children of Sultan Suleiman
Children of Sultan Suleiman

Did Sultan Suleiman regret killing Mustafa?

The people and the soldiers loved Mustafa very much and they thought that the slanders of Hürrem Sultan and Rüstem Pasha were behind his execution. Sultan Suleiman was suspicious of this like the people, and he always thought that he had made a mistake.

Death of Sultan Suleiman

Sultan Suleiman was a great warrior and he wanted to conquer a new place before he died, even though he was very ill in his last years. He went to conquer the Zigetvar castle in 1566 and died of illness during the siege.

The death of Sultan Suleiman was hidden from the soldiers for 42 days so that the morale of the soldiers would not deteriorate.

Sultan Suleiman series

The biggest reason for the interest in Sultan Süleyman and Hürrem sultan in the world is the Turkish series called Magnificent Century. It was published in many countries and attracted a lot of attention.

Suleiman’s show lasted 4 seasons and important Turkish actors took part in the cast of the series.

After the Magnificent Century series about the Magnificent Sultan, a TV series called Magnificent Century Kösem was filmed and it tells about one of the most powerful sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Kosem Sultan.

Sultan Suleiman series
Sultan Suleiman series

Sultan Suleiman Cast

Frequently asked questions about Suleiman the Magnificent

I will try to answer frequently asked questions about Suleiman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Empire.

Why is Suleiman called the magnificent?

The period when the Ottoman Empire reached the largest lands took place during the reign of Sultan Suleiman. He spent almost his entire life in wars. Since the most powerful state in the known world was at the time of Kanuni, he was called Magnificent.

How did Hürrem sultan die?

It is thought that Hürrem Sultan died on 15 April 1558, in Istanbul due to a heart attack. Hürrem Sultan was 58 years old when he died.

Why is Suleiman the magnificent important?

Suleiman the Magnificent, together with Suleiman the Conqueror, is one of the two most important sultans for the Ottoman Empire. During the reign of Sultan Suleiman, the Ottoman Empire reached its most powerful period. Hürrem Sultan is the most powerful woman ever in the Ottoman Empire. Hürrem Sultan has a role in making Sultan Süleyman so popular.

Who is the father of Suleyman the Magnificent?

The father of the magnificent Süleyman is Yavuz Sultan Süleyman. His mother is Ayşe Hafsa Valide Sultan, who is of Crimean origin. Yavuz Sultan Selim died in 1520 and left the empire to the only prince, Sultan Süleyman.

Arabs lived under the Ottoman Empire for many years. For this reason, Turks and Arabs are very confused. If you are asking this question, Are Turkish people Arabic? We recommend that you read our article.